The four days of Naples

220px-Napoli_bombardamenti

In the days between 27 and 30 September 1943 the Neapolitans rose up against the German occupiers and, after fierce fighting, drove them from the city. It was the first revolt against the Germans and was an example of the subsequent actions and the establishment of committees of National Liberation (Comitati di Liberazione Nazionale).

The previous days were very hard days, between the Allied bombings, raids of civilians, executions of people chosen at random from the population.

Rovine a via Marina
Rovine a via Marina

The bombings, which struck the area of ​​the central station and the port as well as other districts, had more than 25,000 dead. The bombing of 4 August ’43 had caused alone 3,000 casualties among civilians. The Basilica of Santa Chiara was hit and destroyed nearly 4 December of ’42. The ship Caterina Costa, charged with explosives and ammunition, broke out in the port on March 28, ’43, causing 600 deaths and 3,000 injured throughout the city, due to pieces of metal that reached far places several hundred meters from the harbor.

After 8 September of ’43, the leaders of the military command in Naples General Richard Pentimalli and Ettore Del Tetto, after helping the Germans in their actions against civilians, they gave to escape in civilian clothes, leaving the few troops Italian (5,000 Italian soldiers in front of 25,000 Germans in Campania) without orders he directives, but the first clashes took place with the participation of soldiers and officers of the Police.

In ’44 the general Pentimalli and Del Tetto were sentenced to 20 years in military prison for abandoning the command, then reduced penalty for amnesties and measures of grace.

On September 9, ’43 Via Foria soldiers and police faced the Germans who demanded that it disarm. After several armed clashes German soldiers were captured, but the military leadership, in collusion with the occupiers, demanded the release of prisoners.

September 10 via Acton there were armed clashes with 3 deaths among Italians and three deaths among the Germans, september 11 to the Riviera di Chiaia, the Germans attacked with machine guns a hotel where a detachment of public security was hosted, the agents reacted with 91 type muskets supplied and forced the Germans to surrender.

On September 12, they were rounded up in the streets and houses 4,000 men to send them to forced labor. On the same day Colonel Walter Scholl took command of the army to Naples and proclaimed a state of siege, with orders to shoot a hundred people for every German killed.

220px-Napoli_-_Piazza_Borsa_-_Lapide_12-09-43
Lapide all’ingresso del palazzo della Borsa che ricorda l’uccisione di 8 militari italiani il 12 settembre 43 – Wikipedia: Retaggio 2012 CC BY 3.0

In those days the population was forced to watch the shooting of 8 prisoners of war took place in Via Cesario Console. Struck especially the execution of a young sailor on the staircase of the university to which thousands of people were forced to assist.

Groups of citizens, with the help of the only military in the city, began to stock up on weapons, in the barracks of the city and in various stores of arms and ammunition, in view of the fighting that now seemed inevitable.

On September 23, Colonel Scholl ordered the evacuation of the entire coast, about 240,000 people were forced to leave their homes, tooking refuge at other family houses, or in places such as caves and public buildings.

At the same time there was the call to forced work for all males between 18 and 33 years. Instead of the planned 30,000 men answered the call only in 150. Colonel Scholl ordained to the roundup with the immediate execution of defaulting.

This was the straw that sparked the uprising, it was impossible to wait any longer, 30,000 people were likely to be passed to arms. Already on September 26, unarmed and screaming crowd saved young men raked from German soldiers.

September 27, 1943: after about 8,000 men had been rounded up by the Germans, the first armed clashes burst between the population and the occupants.

I luoghi degli scontri - Wikipedia: photo NASA - Retaggio
I luoghi degli scontri – Wikipedia: photo NASA – Retaggio

Via Belvedere, locations Pagliarone, was stopped a German car and killed the marshal who was driving. Meanwhile the Germans gave commencing the evacuation of the city, but on the roads found insurgent groups with which lit firefights. Lieutenant Enzo Stimolo head of 200 insurgents attacked the armory of Castel Sant’Elmo that was conquered with many fallen despite the intervention of the German army command who was in Villa Floridiana and the detachment of the sports field Littorio (today Collana) . Some citizens made their way to the Bosco di Capodimonte where it was feared that the Germans wanted to shoot the prisoners rounded up. Others tried to prevent the Ponte della Salute in via Santa Teresa was undermined and destroyed. In the evening they attacked arms depots of the barracks of Via Foria and Via Carbonara.

September 28, 1943: all quarters of Naples rose up, in Materdei was captured a German patrol that had taken refuge in a house, there were other battles in Porta

Targa alla masseria Pagliarone (Vomero) - Wikipedia: Il Demiurgo
Targa alla masseria Pagliarone (Vomero) – Wikipedia: Il Demiurgo

Capuana, in Vasto, around the Maschio Angioino, the Germans massed men captured in raids in Campo Littorio (Collana). Enzo Stimolo and his men, from the terrace of the building to the left of the field (today police station) began to shoot at German soldiers who were inside the fence, after fierce fighting, and only the next day, they managed to free the prisoners, after negotiations between Colonel Scholl and Lieutenant Enzo Stimolo, in return was assured the Germans a way out of Naples.

September 29, 1943: the uprising was organized at local level, to command the Vomero was prof. Antonio Tarsia in Curia, in Materdei Ermete Bonomi and Carlo Cerasuolo father of Maddalena Cerasuolo, at Avvocata Carmine Musella, at Capodimonte Aurelio Spoto, at Chiaia Stefano Fadda, in Vasto Tito Murolo, in other quarters Franco Cibarelli, Amedeo Manzo, Francesco Bilardo, Gennaro Zenga, Francesco Amicarelli, Adolfo Pansini of the Liceo

Gennarino Capuozzo
Gennarino Capuozzo

Sannazzaro stood out among young students (which is dedicated a plaque to the Campo Littorio). Liceo Vincenzo Cuoco there were violent clashes between German tanks and a group of 50 insurgents Neapolitans who suffered the loss of 12 insurgents dead and 15 wounded. German gunfire occurred in Ponticelli on the civilian population. Clashes took place at the airport and Piazza Ottocalli.

September 30, 1943, the Germans began the evacuation of the city since the Anglo-Americans were now on the outskirts of Naples, The Germans continued throughout the day the shelling from the hill of Capodimonte on Port’Alba and Materdei. Prof. Antonio Tarsia in Curia assumed full civil and military powers in the city. In retreating, the Germans burned the volumes and the “membranacei” Anjou of the State Archives that were hidden in San Paolo Belsito.

Festeggiamenti dopo la liberazione
Festeggiamenti dopo la liberazione

On October 1, the Anglo-Americans entered in Naples, welcomed by the cheering people. The budget of the four days was of 168 deaths among the 1,589 partisans and 159 among the citizens, however cemetery logs turned 562 deaths. The armed insurrection against the Germans prevented the occupants to make Naples “ash and mud” as Adolf Hitler had explicitly asked, and the mass deportations of citizens of Naples were avoided as far as possible.

City of Naples was awarded the Gold Medal for Valor for this rebellion against German occupants, it is the highest honor of the Italian State.

Also four “scugnizzi” was awarded the Gold Medal for Valor (in memory) who lost their lives in the fighting:
Gennaro (said Gennarino) Capuozzo of 12 years (he took part in the fighting in Via Santa Teresa, where he lost his life while throwing a grenade at the German tanks),
Filippo Illuminato of 13 years,
Pasquale Formisano of 17 years,
Mario Menechini of 18 years.

Nine were awarded Silver Medals to Giuseppe Maenza (memory), Giacomo Lettieri (memory), Antonino Tarsia in Curia, Stefano Fadda, Ezio Murolo, Giuseppe Sances, Francesco Pintore, Nunzio Castaldo, Fortunato Licheri, and four Bronze Medals to Maddalena (called Lenuccia) Cerasuolo that, risking her live, went to parley with the German officers, Domenico Scognamiglio, Ciro Vasaturo, Carlo Abate.
Post under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License It uses parts from Wikipedia: “Quattro giornate di Napoli”